Eastern Africa

A review of studies on ecosystem services in Africa

Abstract: Assessments of ecosystem services (ES) are vital for Africa’s sustainability. ES supply and demand take place in distinctive patterns in Africa due to the continent’s characteristic spatial heterogeneity, rich biodiversity, demographic developments, resource endowment, resource management conflicts, and fragile political landscapes, along with current industrialization and urbanization processes. Ignorance of the dynamism of these parameters could diminish the capacity of the different ecosystem service providing units (SPU) to satisfy the demands in the ecosystem service benefiting areas (SBA) in Africa. The main aim of this review article is to assess the extent to which ES studies have been conducted and applied in Africa. This review analyzes those articles accessible online via the ISI Web of Science and open access journals. The online search yielded 52 ES-related studies, which were used for the review. Results indicate that most studies were conducted in South Africa, Kenya and Tanzania, and focused on services provided by watersheds and catchment ecosystems. Crucially, most of the studies focused on more than one ES category. Provisioning ES dominated across all the ES categories. However, ES tradeoffs and synergies were barely addressed. Economic valuation of ES and ES mapping comprised more than three-quarters of all the studies, and a quarter referred to biophysical quantification or qualification of ES. There are emerging alternative, non-monetary valuation methods for ES, which could pave a new way of capturing value of non-monetized ES in Africa. Moreover, there is an urgent need to extend ES studies to the entire continent, in order to capture spatial and socio-economic uniqueness of various countries and focus more on local-scale assessments of multiple ES, as a means for addressing ES tradeoffs, synergies and SPU-SBA relations in Africa.

Citation: P. Waweru Wangai, B. Burkhard, F. Müller (2016) A review of studies on ecosystem services in Africa. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 5 (2): 225-245. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.08.005

Document Type
Publication year
2016
Document Theme
Ecosystem Services

Biodiversity and ecosystem services on the African continent – What is changing, and what are our options?

Abstract: Throughout the world, biodiversity and nature's contributions to people are under threat, with clear changes evident. Biodiversity and ecosystem services have particular value in Africa– yet they are negatively impacted by a range of drivers, including land use and climate change. In this communication, we show evidence of changing biodiversity and ecosystem services in Africa, as well as the current most significant drivers of change. We then consider five plausible futures for the African continent, each underlain by differing assumptions. In three out of the five futures under consideration, negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services are likely to persist. Those two plausible futures prioritizing environment and sustainability, however, are shown as the most likely paths to achieving long term development objectives without compromising the continent's biodiversity and ecosystem services. Such a finding shows clearly that achievement of such objectives cannot be separated from full recognition of the value of such services.

Citation: E. Archer, L.E. Dziba, K.J. Mulongoy, M.A. Maoela, M. Walters, R. Biggs, M-C. Cormier Salem, F. DeClerck, M.C. Diaw, A.E. Dunham, P. Failler, C. Gordon, K.A. Harhash, R. Kasisi, F. Kizito, W.D. Nyingi, N. Oguge, B. Osman-Elasha, L.C. Stringer, L. Tito de Morais, A. Assogbadjo, B.N. Egoh, M.W. Halmy, K. Heubach, A. Mensah, L. Pereira, N. Sitas (2020) Biodiversity and ecosystem services on the African continent – What is changing, and what are our options? Environmental Development: 100558. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2020.100558

Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
Ecosystem Services

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/61609

Country
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Closing the gap: The financing and resourcing of protected and conserved areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). Closing the gap. The financing and resourcing of protected and conserved areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO; BIOPAMA.

Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Closing the gap: The financing and resourcing of protected and conserved areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020) - Knowledge Brief

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). Closing the gap. The financing and resourcing of protected and conserved areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. Knowledge Brief. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO; BIOPAMA.

Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Djibouti

Country Flag
ISO2
DJ
ISO3
DJI
ISO3 Number
262
Region
Eastern Africa

Djibouti Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Djibouti Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

Eritrea

Country Flag
ISO2
ER
ISO3
ERI
ISO3 Number
232
Region
Eastern Africa

Eritrea Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Eritrea Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

Ethiopia

Country Flag
ISO2
ET
ISO3
ETH
ISO3 Number
231
Region
Eastern Africa

Ethiopia Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Ethiopia Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

GESTION DURABLE DES FORÊTS ET DE LA FAUNE SAUVAGE EN AFRIQUE: Améliorer la valeur, les avantages et les services

La gestion durable des forêts a été encouragée comme un moyen important d'assurer que les forêts demeurent de génération en génération. L'expansion des terres arables et de l'agriculture permanente représente 60% de la conversion des forêts en Afrique, causant une empreinte et un déséquilibre environnementaux considérables. Au rythme actuel, l'avenir de la sécurité humaine en Afrique  pour l'alimentation de base, les fibres et l'habitation  sera gravement menacé par les pratiques non viables. Toujours est-il que l'Afrique doit doubler sa production alimentaire d'ici à 2030, sans pour autant étendre davantage la zone arable, et cela demeure un défi majeur. Cet article présente une approche gagnant-gagnant à double volet pour parvenir à la « déforestation évitée » à travers i) une intégration innovante du couvert arboré dans les paysages agricoles (agriculture pérenne), et ii) l'intensification agricole durable des terres arables. Cette approche intégrée peut réduire la pression sur les terres forestières, accroître la production alimentaire, satisfaire plusieurs autres besoins de mo y e n s  d ' e x i s t e n c e ,  e t  a mé l i o r e r  l ' a d a p t a t i o n  a u x changements climatiques et l'atténuation de leurs effets.

Document
Publication year
2016
Document Theme
Ecosystem Services

How effective are the protected areas of East Africa?

Abstract: Protected areas are the cornerstone of in situ conservation and their effective management is critical for maintaining biodiversity in the long term. In East Africa (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda) there are 1,776 protected areas (including 186 “strict” protected areas with IUCN management categories I through IV) covering more than 27% of its terrestrial area. Here we document the extent to which East African protected areas encompass ecoregions and endemic terrestrial vertebrate taxa, and using new land conversion data derived from medium to high spatial resolution satellite images, we assess how they have been encroached upon by agriculture and other land use. We find that East African protected areas cover 86% of ecoregions well (>10% threshold of ecoregion representativeness set by the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11), some very well (>90% - Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands and East African montane moorlands). In contrast, Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands, Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets, and Southern Swahili coastal forests and woodlands are poorly represented. Protected areas cover at least 10% of the distribution of 256 of 303 East African endemic and near-endemic terrestrial vertebrate species (the latter defined here as having 90% or more of their range in East Africa). However, 37% of these species' ranges do not have at least 10% coverage by strict PAs and only 26% of endemic species have at least half of their range covered by PAs. Encouragingly, we find that only 6.8% of East African protected areas has been converted to agriculture or other human use since gazettement. Only 1.6% of strict protected areas have been converted providing very strong evidence that strict protection is the most enduring way of safeguarding habitat.

Citation: Riggio, J., A.P. Jacobson, R.J. Hijmans and T. Caro (2019). How effective are the protected areas of East Africa? Global Ecology and Conservation 17: e00573. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00573

 

Publication year
2019
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

International Outlook for Privately Protected Areas: Ethiopia Country Profile (2019)

Suggested citation: Gloss, L., Myron, E., and Ahmed, H. International Outlook for Privately Protected Areas: Ethiopia Country Profile. International Land Conservation Network (a project of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy) - United Nations Development Programme, 2019.

Available from: https://www.landconservationnetwork.org/summary-report 

Country
Publication year
2019

IUCN PAPACO Website with RAPPAM, METT and EoH Assessments in Africa

The IUCN Programme on African Protected Areas & Conservation (PAPACO) has, over the years, supported many evaluations of protected area management effectiveness (PAME) in Africa, with a focus on Central and Western Africa. These evaluations were carried out at different levels - site level, national level or regional level - and using different methodologies. These methodologies included the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM), the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) and the Enhancing our Heritage (EoH) Toolkit.   

The IUCN PAPACO website has a dedicated section where the RAPPAM, METT and EoH evaluations are available:

English: https://papaco.org/evaliations-of-pas/
French: https://papaco.org/fr/evaluations/

More information about the different PAME methodologies is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/pame/tools

Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Kenya

Country Flag
ISO2
KE
ISO3
KEN
ISO3 Number
404
Region
Eastern Africa

Kenya Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Kenya Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

Kenya Lake System in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya: Enhancing our Heritage (EoH) Assessment 2014

EoH assessment report - also available on the IUCN PAPACO website:

https://papaco.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/EoH-Rift-Valley-Lakes-Kenya-April-2014.pdf

Country
Publication year
2014
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Kenya Lake System in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "significant concern".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/555542339

Country
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Kilimanjaro National Park, Tanzania: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/17761

Protected Area
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Lake Turkana National Parks, Kenya: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "critical".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/145586

Country
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Management Effectiveness, Governance, and Social Assessments of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa

Citation: Campese, J. & Sulle, E. (2019). Management Effectiveness, Governance, and Social Assessments of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: A rapid inventory and analysis to support the BIOPAMA programme and partners. BIOPAMA, IUCN ESARO.

Publication year
2019
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)

Management Effectiveness, Governance, and Social Assessments of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (Executive Summary)

Citation: Campese, J. & Sulle, E. (2019). Management Effectiveness, Governance, and Social Assessments of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: A rapid inventory and analysis to support the BIOPAMA programme and partners - Executive Summary. BIOPAMA, IUCN ESARO.

Publication year
2019
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)

Monitoring Village Forest Governance with the MJUMITA Dashboard Tool

Citation: MJUMITA. 2014. Monitoring Village Forest Governance with the MJUMITA Dashboard Tool. Policy Brief. Community Forest Conservation Network of Tanzania (MJUMITA) and Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Publication year
2014
Document Theme
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)

Mount Kenya National Park/Natural Forest, Kenya: Enhancing our Heritage (EoH) Assessment 2014

EoH assessment report - also available on the IUCN PAPACO website:

https://papaco.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/EoH-Mount-Kenya-April-2014.pdf

Country
Publication year
2014
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Mount Kenya National Park/Natural Forest, Kenya: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/145585

Country
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Natural World Heritage in Africa: Progress and Prospects (2020)

Citation: Howard, P. C. and Bertzky, B. (2020). Natural World Heritage in Africa: Progress and prospects. BIOPAMA Programme, IUCN Regional Offi ce for Eastern and Southern Africa (ESARO), Nairobi, Kenya and IUCN Regional Offi ce for West and Central Africa (PACO), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/2010

Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Protected Area Governance and Equity Chapter - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Protected Area Governance and Equity (Chapter 9). State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)

Protected Area Management Effectiveness Chapter - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Protected Area Management Effectiveness (Chapter 10). State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Representation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in East Africa’s protected area network

Abstract: The dramatic increase in anthropogenic activity severely threatens the biodiversity and life-support services that underpin human well-being. The broadened focus of protecting ecosystem services (ESs) better aligns the interests of people and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we used species richness as a surrogate for biodiversity and mapped the key ESs in East Africa with the goal to assess the spatial congruence between biodiversity and ESs, and evaluate the representation of current protected areas (PAs) network for biodiversity and ESs. The results showed that PAs well represented for species richness and regulating services but underrepresented for provisioning services. The PAs network occupies 10.96% of East Africa’s land surface, and captures 20.62–26.37% of conservation priorities for vertebrate and plant species. It encompasses more than 16.23% of priority areas for three regulating services, but only 6.17% and 5.22% for crop and livestock production, respectively. Strong correlations and high overlaps exist between species richness and regulating services, particularly for carbon storage, water yield and plants. Thus, we believe that actions taken to conserve biodiversity also will protect certain ESs, which in turn will create new incentives and funding sources for the conservation of biodiversity. Overall, our results have wide-ranging policy implications and can be used to optimize conservation strategies for both biodiversity and multiple ESs in East Africa.

Citation: Wei, F., Wang, S., Fu, B., Liu, Y. (2020) Representation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in East Africa’s protected area network. Ambio 49: 245-257. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01155-4

Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
Ecosystem Services

Rwanda

Country Flag
ISO2
RW
ISO3
RWA
ISO3 Number
646
Region
Eastern Africa

Rwanda Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Rwanda Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Uganda: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/61608

Country
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island Marine National Park, Sudan: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "good with some concerns".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/555622045

Country
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "critical".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/5005

Protected Area
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Serengeti National Park, Tanzania: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "significant concern".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/2575

Protected Area
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Simien National Park, Ethiopia: Enhancing our Heritage (EoH) Assessment 2014

EoH assessment report - also available on the IUCN PAPACO website:

https://papaco.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/EoH-Ethiopia-Simien-mountains.pdf

Country
Protected Area
Publication year
2014
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Simien National Park, Ethiopia: IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020

In 2020, the conservation outlook for this site has been assessed as "significant concern".

The assessment is available online at: https://worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/2006

Country
Protected Area
Document Type
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)

Somalia

Country Flag
ISO2
SO
ISO3
SOM
ISO3 Number
706
Region
Eastern Africa

Somalia Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Somalia Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

South Sudan

Country Flag
ISO2
SS
ISO3
SSD
ISO3 Number
728
Region
Eastern Africa

South Sudan Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: South Sudan Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)

Sudan

Country Flag
ISO2
SD
ISO3
SDN
ISO3 Number
736
Region
Eastern Africa

Sudan Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Sudan Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020

Tanzania Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Tanzania Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Publication year
2020

Uganda

Country Flag
ISO2
UG
ISO3
UGA
ISO3 Number
800
Region
Eastern Africa

Uganda Country Profile - State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa (2020)

Citation: IUCN ESARO (2020). The State of Protected and Conserved Areas in Eastern and Southern Africa: Uganda Country Profile. State of Protected and Conserved Areas Report Series No. 1. Nairobi, Kenya: IUCN ESARO.

The full report is available here: https://rris.biopama.org/node/20602

Country
Publication year
2020
Document Theme
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)

Western Indian Ocean Marine Protected Areas Outlook 2021

Citation: UNEP-Nairobi Convention and WIOMSA. 2021. Western Indian Ocean Marine Protected Areas Outlook: Towards achievement of the Global Biodiversity Framework Targets. UNEP and WIOMSA, Nairobi, Kenya, 298 pp.

This MPA Outlook for the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is the first comprehensive regional analysis that provides a detailed update on the efforts by the Nairobi Convention countries to meet globally agreed marine conservation targets especially SDG14.5, which states that by 2020, to conserve at least 10 percent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information. This is also aligned to the Convention on Biological Diversity Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, Aichi Target 11. In 2019, the region had 143 proclaimed MPAs with several proposed across different countries.

A key purpose of this MPA Outlook was to establish baselines using appropriate indicators to assess the progress of the Contracting Parties to the Nairobi Convention in meeting these targets. Thirty authors contributed to the nine country chapters, the various case studies and other parts of this volume. Included are detailed descriptions of the MPAs in the countries of the region, the legal mandates under which they exist, the challenges they face and estimates of their management effectiveness. The main findings indicate that the vast majority of the sites across the WIO region, that are considered as MPAs or as having equivalent legal status and levels of protection, are coastal and/or inshore, however the largest, covering by far the greatest extents of the ocean, are those with considerable offshore elements. The assessment also established that the majority of existing MPAs across the region are not managed as effectively as they could and should be, due primarily to lack of funding for essential staff, equipment and capacity development, and commitment from relevant authorities. Recommendations are provided to support improved management of current MPAs and strengthen proposals from different countries for the establishment of further areas under protection, so as to reach conservation goals, including those being developed under the post- 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, while safeguarding coastal livelihoods and economies over the coming decades.

Document
Document Type
Publication year
2021
Document Theme
PAME (Protected Area Management Effectiveness)
PAGE (Protected Area Governance and Equity)
Conservation Planning
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